Active Directory (AD) is a Microsoft Windows directory service that allows IT administrators to manage users, applications, data, and various other aspects of their organization’s network. Active Directory security is vital to protect user credentials, company systems, sensitive data, software applications, and more from unauthorized access. A security compromise of AD can essentially undermine the integrity of your identity management infrastructure, leading to catastrophic levels of data leakage and/or system corruption/destruction.
Since AD is central to authorizing users, access, and applications throughout an organization, it is a prime target for attackers. If a cyber attacker is able to access the AD system, they can potentially access all connected user accounts, databases, applications, and all types of information. Therefore, an Active Security compromise, particularly those that are not caught early, can lead to widespread fallout from which it may be difficult to recover.
Let’s delve into several key areas where Active Directory systems may be susceptible to threats:
AD has a set of predetermined, default security settings created by Microsoft. These security settings may not be ideal for your organization’s needs. Additionally, these default security settings are well-understood by hackers, who will attempt to exploit gaps and vulnerabilities.
Domain user accounts and other administrative users may have full, privileged access to AD. It is very likely that most employees, even those in IT, do not need high-level or superuser privileges.
AD allows administrators to grant access to specific applications and data based on employee roles. Roles are assigned to groups that determine access levels. It’s important to only allow the levels of access to individuals and roles need to perform their job functions.
Brute force attacks on AD services often target passwords. Uncomplicated passwords and easily guessable passwords are most at risk.
Hackers can quickly exploit unpatched applications, OS, and firmware on AD Servers, giving them a critical first-foothold within your environment.
If IT administrators have awareness about unauthorized access attempts, they can more effectively disrupt or prevent such access attempts in the future. Thus, a clear Windows audit trail is vital to identify both legitimate and malicious access attempts, and to detect any AD changes that have been made.
There are at least 7 best practices IT departments should implement to ensure holistic security around Active Directory. These should at minimum include:
After installing AD, it’s vital to review the security configuration and update it in line with business needs.
Review all the necessary permissions for data and applications for all employee roles in the organization. Ensure that employees have only the minimal level of access they need to perform their job roles. Also, ensure separation of privileges, so there is tighter auditability between roles and to help prevent lateral movement in the event an account is compromised. Apply strong privileged access management (PAM) policies and security controls.
Carefully review all IT staff responsibilities and only provide administrative privileges and superuser access to those who absolutely need this access to perform their roles. Use PowerShell Just Enough Administration (JEA) and/or a PAM solution to ensure this access is limited in the most granular way practical. Ensure these accounts are properly protected with robust passwords.
Conduct reporting of unusual access attempts. Provide full windows auditing and alerting of any access from inside or outside the organization. Pay special attention to Windows AD change auditing. This will also help to meet PCI, SOX, HIPAA, and other compliance requirements.
Backup the AD configuration and directory on a regular basis. Practice disaster recovery processes to allow for fast recovery in case AD integrity is breached.
Identifying and patching vulnerabilities is one of the IT department’s most important tasks. Ensure a fast, efficient, effective patching and maintenance process for AD and other flaws.
Centralize all reviews, reports, controls, and administration in one place, and look for tools that can provide automated workflows for alerting and helping to reconcile issues.
Understanding AD vulnerabilities and implementing security and least privilege access controls is vital to protecting domain accounts and keeping the IT ecosystem safe. Proper visibility, management, reporting, and auditing capabilities can significantly enhance AD security an ensure systems integrity.