This is an updated blog that was first published on November 17, 2016
Least privilege is the concept and practice of restricting access rights for users, accounts, and computing processes to only those resources absolutely required to perform routine, legitimate activities. Privilege itself refers to the authorization to bypass certain security restraints. When applied to people, least privilege access, sometimes called the principle of least privilege (POLP), means enforcing the minimal level of user rights, or lowest clearance level, that allows the user to perform his/her role. However, least privilege also applies to processes, applications, systems, and devices (such as IoT), in that each should have only those permissions required to perform an authorized activity.
While this blog will focus on the cybersecurity context of least privilege, no doubt you’re familiar with analogous concepts, such as “need to know” popularized amongst military and governmental circles. In fact, adoption of “least privilege” was advanced by the publication of the “Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria” in 1985, following the recommendations of a task force dedicated to safeguarding classified data.
In this era of fast-emerging and evolving technology areas, like robotic process automation (RPA), IoT, shadow IT applications run from the cloud, and other facets of digital transformation, least privilege is an imperative security control to get right. Forrester Research estimates at least 80% of security breaches involve privileged credentials. Enforcing least privilege is a best practice that is instrumental in reducing security risk and minimizing business disruption that may result from errors or malicious intent. Least privilege is also a foundational component of zero trust strategies.
While the concept of least privilege is straightforward, it can be complex to effectively implement, especially, when you consider the many variables, such as:
- Heterogeneous systems (Windows, macOS, Unix, Linux, etc.)
- Expanding numbers and types of applications and endpoints (desktops, servers, laptops, tablets smartphones, IoT, ICS, etc.)
- Diverse computing environments (cloud, virtual, on-prem, hybrid)
- Many different types of identities and user roles (human, application, machine)
- Third-party / vendor access
This blog provides an overview of least privilege and will cover: types of computing privileges, privileged and non-privileged accounts, privileged threat vectors and attacks, challenges to applying a least privilege model, best practices and strategies for implementing least privilege, and the cornerstone technologies for enabling a least-privilege computing environment.
Privileged & Non-Privileged Accounts: An Abridged Overview
So, how do users acquire privileges? Some privilege assignment, or delegation, to people may be based on role-based attributes, such as business unit, (i.e. marketing, HR, or IT) as well as other parameters (seniority, time of day, special circumstance, etc.). Additionally, various operating systems provide different default privilege settings for different types of user accounts.
Superuser accounts, primarily used for administration by specialized IT employees, may have virtually unlimited privileges, or carte blanche, over a system. Superuser account privileges can include full read / write / execute privileges, and the power to render systemic changes across a network, such as creating or installing files or software, modifying files and settings, and deleting users and data.
Standard user accounts, sometimes called least-privileged user accounts (LUA) or non-privileged accounts, have a limited set of privileges. In a least-privilege environment, these are the type of accounts that most users should be operating in 90 – 100% of the time.
As a best practice, most non-IT users should only have standard user account access. However, some IT roles (such as a network admin) may possess multiple accounts, logging in as a standard user for routine tasks, while logging into a superuser account to perform administrative activities. Because administrative accounts possess more privileges, and thus, pose a heightened risk compared to standard user accounts, a best practice is to only use these administrator accounts when absolutely necessary, and for the shortest time needed.
The fastest growing area of privileged accounts today are actually associated with machine identities, including applications. Forrester Research has shared that, “our clients tell us that machine identities are growing at twice the rate of human identities.” Just like human accounts and privileges, these non-human privileges much be identified and managed.
Privileged Accounts in Unix, Linux, Windows, and macOS platforms
In Linux and Unix-like systems, the superuser account, called ‘root’, is virtually omnipotent over the system, with unrestricted access to all commands, files, directories, and resources. Root can even grant and revoke any permissions for other users! If misused, either in error (such as accidentally deleting an important file or mistyping a powerful command), or with malicious intent, these root accounts can wreak catastrophic damage to a system or entire enterprise.
Because of the immense potential for destruction inherent to root privileges, IT admins should only log into and assume root account privileges when absolutely necessary. Sometimes, this is done by leveraging the sudo (super user do) command. Sudo allows the user to temporarily elevate privileges to root-level, but without having direct access to the root account and password.
Standard, “non-privileged” Unix and Linux accounts lack access to sudo, but still retain minimal default privileges, allowing for basic customizations and software installations.
In Windows systems, the Administrator account holds superuser privileges. Each Windows computer has at least one local administrator account. The Administrator account allows the user to perform such activities as installing software and changing local configurations and settings. Standard users have substantially curtailed privileges, while guest user accounts are generally limited even further, to basic application access and Internet browsing.
On the other hand, macOS is Unix-like, but unlike Unix and Linux, is rarely deployed as a server. However, macOS endpoints are increasingly prevalent at enterprises. While Mac users run with root access by default, as a security best practice, a non-privileged account should be created and used for routine computing to limit the likelihood and scope of privileged threats.
Privileged Accounts and the Cloud
While cloud and virtualized environments provide many benefits, chief among them, rapid scalability, many traditional security tools are architected for on-premise environments. When extended or retrofitted to the cloud or across hybrid environments, these legacy tools leave gaps that allow for excessive privileged access and permissions.
Cloud and virtualization have also ushered in administrator consoles (such as with AWS and Office 365) that confer substantial superuser capabilities, enabling users to instantly provision, configure, and delete servers at incredible scale. While it’s just a matter of a few simple clicks to spin-up and manage thousands of virtual machine—each with its own set of privileges and privileged accounts—from a single console, it can be complex to onboard and manage all of these privileged accounts, many of which are ephemeral.
Additionally, cloud platforms may provide some basic native tools for managing pieces of privileged access or other capabilities, but they cannot typically be extended for multicloud use.
Common Privileged Threat Vectors
Hackers, malware, partners / vendors, insiders gone rogue, and simple user errors—especially in the case of superuser accounts, round-out the most common privileged threat vectors.
Let’s delve into how some of these vectors play out and review a few real-world examples.
Poor Computing Hygiene + Unmanaged Privileges = Opportunities for Exploits
Routine computing activities might entail internet browsing, watching streaming video, use of Microsoft 365 and other basic applications, such as Salesforce, Google Docs, Dropbox, etc. In the case of Windows PCs, users often log in with administrative account privileges—far broader than what is needed. Privilege overprovisioining massively increases the risk that malware or hackers may steal passwords or install malicious code that could be delivered via web surfing or email attachments. The malware or hacker could then leverage the entire set of privileges of the account, accessing data of the infected computer, and even launching an attack against other networked computers or servers.
For example, should a standard user click on an attachment or link within a phishing email that consequently loads ransomware onto their system, the impact of that act alone would be fairly isolated to the user’s own systems and the limited resources to which they can access. However, if that user was logged in as a superuser with broad admin privileges, the ransomware package could leverage domain account privileges to modify settings, corrupt, and access and encrypt sensitive data from other endpoints and servers across the network.
Hackers covet privileged accounts and credentials, knowing that, once obtained, they provide a fast track to an organization’s most critical systems and sensitive data. With privileged credentials in hand, a hacker essentially becomes an “insider”—and that’s a dangerous scenario.
Hackers commonly seek to gain an initial foothold through a low-level exploit, such as through a phishing attack on a standard user account. The attacker then surreptitiously zig-zags through the network until they find a dormant or orphaned account that allows them to escalate their privileges. Elevation of privilege vulnerabilities are increasingly common and can make it particularly easy for an attacker, even an unprivileged one, to elevate privileges.
Organizations that lack robust enterprise password management capabilities, such as automated password rotation, are also more susceptible to pass-the-hash (PtH) attacks. In these attacks a hacker who has already gained low-level credentials, can steal the password hash from an admin account if revealed—such as during a helpdesk session with the infiltrated account—and then reuse the hash to unlock administrative access rights.
Hackers are also adept at obtaining deep privileges on a single computer and then expanding their privileges to other devices across a network via lateral movement and privilege escalation. With the proper privileges, and inadequate technology controls, a hacker can easily erase their tracks to avoid detection while they traverse the environment and get closer to achieving their objectives.
Insider Privilege Misuse or Abuse
Allowing a user, or perhaps even multiple users, to utilize the all-powerful root in Unix / Linux environments means a simple error, such as a mistyped command or an accidental deletion, could have far-reaching consequences. Such an instance of privilege abuse could cause downtime of Tier-1 systems, opening up gigantic vulnerabilities that let in rootkits and other exploits, or worse. In Windows environments, misused admin accounts also have potential to cause outsized damage compared to non-privileged accounts.
However, rogue insiders likely pose the most dangerous threat. Insider threats take the longest to uncover since employees, contractors and partners generally benefit from some level of trust by default, which may help them avoid detection. The protracted time-to-discovery also translates into more potential for damage.
Certainly, many of the most devastating breaches over the past 15 years have been perpetrated by insiders. Unlike external hackers, insiders already start within the perimeter, while also benefitting from know-how of where sensitive assets and data lie and how to zero in on them.
Cautionary Tales of Privileged Access Exploits
Here are a few infamous breaches underscored the need to get least privilege right.
NSA /Edward Snowden Breach: As a technology contractor for the NSA, Edward Snowden had administrative access rights, ostensibly to perform such activities as backing up computer systems and migrating data to local servers. However, by abusing his admin privileges, and utilizing some simple and widely available software tools, including an automated web crawler, Snowden illegally copied, accessed, and then leaked an estimated 1.7 million NSA files. In response to the Snowden breach, the NSA announced the drastic action of eliminating 90% of system administrators, to limit access and improve its least-privilege posture.
Target Breach: The 2013 Target breach impacted roughly 70 million customers. Hackers gained unauthorized access into Target’s systems through pilfered credentials of a third-party vendor, a heating and air conditioning contractor. The HVAC contractor had access to Target’s network, including permissions to upload executables, that were far more than required for it to perform its maintenance work. By restricting access permissions to the fewest resources, functions, and areas necessary for the HVAC company, Target likely would have avoided the breach, and the subsequent fallout. Enforcing least privilege for vendor access tends to be one of the most challenging security controls for organizations. But with the average organization having 182 vendors connecting into its environment each week, it's important that access doesn’t become a dangerous weak link.
SolarWinds: Nation-state attackers hacked into SolarWinds and then inserted malware into SolarWinds Orion's source code. Consequently, the Orion application was leveraged as a backdoor to compromise SolarWinds customers when they applied auto-updates. SolarWinds customers were vulnerable to this supply chain attack because the Orion application needed unrestricted access, more specifically, global shared administrator access, to work. The core issue is that global administrative accounts, with all their privileges, are often needed for legacy applications, like Orion, to operate correctly and, thus, they cannot operate using the concept of least privilege application management. Thus, they are allowed full and unrestricted access to operate, which presents a massive attack surface. Since the Orion application itself was compromised, threat actors leveraged unrestricted privileged access throughout the victims' environments using the application. To prevent or mitigate these instances of over-privileged applications, organizations must first identity all the applications in their environment that require high levels of privileges. Wherever possible, enterprises should implement least privilege application management, which entails removing all excessive application privileges. But again, this is may prove impossible with many legacy applications. In some instances, the best mitigation strategy is to remove the application and choose a new vendor/application to solve for the business need. This issue is covered in more depth in this blog on least privilege application management.
Emerging Privileged Threat Vectors
Accelerated digital transformation (DX) is driving the creation of new business opportunities and helping organizations adapt to a changing work environment. At the same time, many DX initiatives significantly increase the privileged threat surface. Here are a few examples.
Edge Computing / IoT
A rapidly expanding universe of connected “things”—from health monitoring and delivery devices to industrial controls to wearables, smart appliances, and more—presents enormous challenges for IT. Identifying and securely onboarding legitimate devices at scale is itself a massive undertaking. Many of these endpoints also comprise the backbone of edge computing, which is powering a new wave of mobility and digital transformation by enabling data processing to occur closer to where it is needed, reducing latency times. IoT devices frequently suffer serious security limitations, such as the inability to have the software hardened or firmware updated, and hard-coded passwords. IoT is also vulnerable to exploits such as man in the middle attacks (MiTM), when an attacker intercepts and / or possibly modifies data communicated between two systems.
Long ago, large-scale IoT hacks made the leap from theory to reality. DDOS attacks leveraging IoT botnets comprised of as many as a million “things” (such as cameras, thermostats, DVRs, and even light bulbs) knocked many U.S. East Coast businesses, and the nation of Liberia, offline, in separate incidents. The scale and scope of such attacks could increase exponentially as 5G becomes more widespread.
While IoT” and all the “smart” things certainly pose some unique security challenges, when it comes down to it, organizations need to be able to enforce least privilege and / or application control over any endpoint with an IP—traditional or IoT. Network segmentation for IoT devices is one way to broadly restrict the permissions of IoT devices and the associated systems and operations, while role-based access permissions should also be enforced as a best practice. The privileged access pathways across edge networks must also be managed and secured.
Robotic Process Automation (RPA): By automating mundane business tasks, robotic process automation can reduce manual effort and errors—and often without the heavy lift needed of other digital transformation projects, like DevOps. RPA security may be overlooked by IT because it involves software robots, service accounts, and other machine accounts rather than human identities, and also because it tends to occur as shadow IT.
RPA processes, applications, toolsets, and workflows commonly involve privileges that must be managed. RPA bots, after all, need the same application and access as humans. For instance, a software robot may need to log into a business system, copy and transmit data to another process or system. RPA credentials are often shared by software robots, which multiplies the risk exposure should the credentials be compromised. Ideally, credentials are managed with a unique privilege for each software robot, and separation of privileges is applied to minimize risk.
DevOps: While DevOps has been in force for over a decade, it’s often the core engine of IT innovation at organizations today. DevOps tools and processes exacerbate many of the security issues found in other parts of the enterprise due to the focus on speed and automation, combined with the scale and elasticity of the cloud. While DevSecOps is gaining adoption and helping to improve overall DevOps security, risks are still abundant.
Some frequent privilege-related issues of DevOps environments include:
- Inadequate privileged controls around applications and tools
- Over-privileged users
- Lack of segmentation between dev and production environments
- Highly privileged credentials embedded in CI/CD tools, code, and applications
- Misconfigurations or errors that provide too much privileged access
- Sharing of privileged accounts
All the human, machine, toolset, application, and other privileges in DevOps workflows should be discovered and managed. The added challenge, however, is to achieve least privilege across CI/CD pipelines without hindering workflows.
Challenges to Applying Least Privilege
If excessive privileges pose such a vexing threat, why don’t organizations rein them in? The short answer is that companies do—or, try to via policies and technology solutions, but numerous factors contribute to make dialing in the optimal amount of privilege rights and access a challenge.
Lack of visibility and awareness
Lack of visibility and awareness of all the privileged accounts, assets, and credentials across an enterprise stands as one pervasive stumbling block for companies in effectively managing privileges. Independent research, surveys, and audits shed light on the reality that permanent accounts, and orphaned accounts with high degrees of privilege, are sprawled across the physical, virtual, and cloud environments of most organizations. To complicate matters, manifold systems and applications have easily guessable default credentials. Until these applications (such as shadow IT) and systems are discovered, properly configured, and brought under management, they pose a high risk for exploit by a hacker or through malware.
Employee resistance often rears its head in the face of least-privilege policies. If privileged access controls are overly restrictive, they can disrupt user workflows, causing frustration and hindering productivity. To obviate helpdesk requests and end-user headaches (users rarely complain about having too many privileges), IT admins traditionally provision end users with broad sets of privileges. This superfluous access translates into a broadened attack surface.
Role-based access, administered through Active Directory or another rights management solution, can help enforce general rules around a role, a group, a team, or an individual’s set of privileges. However, an individual’s role is often fluid and can evolve over the course of employment such that they accumulate new responsibilities and corresponding privileges—while still retaining privileges that they no longer use or that are irrelevant to their role. Moreover, a drawback to role-based access is that it lacks the contextual granularity to only provide access when required for a specific use. Of course, the explosion of machine identities and ephemeral privileged accounts (in cloud/virtualized environments), further complicates this picture.
Benefits of Least Privilege for Security & Productivity
According to the Microsoft Vulnerabilities Report 2020 (published by BeyondTrust), from the 5 year period of 2015 – 2019, 83% of Critical vulnerabilities on Windows systems could have been mitigated by removing admin rights. In fact, in 2019, 100% of Critical vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer & Edge would have been mitigated by removing admin rights! A similarly powerful risk-reducing power of least-privilege has also been demonstrated across third-party applications, such as for Oracle, Adobe, Google, Cisco, VMware, etc.
Unfettered privileged rights and access essentially equates to uncapped potential for damage. The more privileges a user, account, or process amasses, the greater the potential for abuse, exploit, or error. Implementing least privilege not only reduces the likelihood of a breach occurring in the first place, but it helps limit the scope of a breach should one happen.
Least privilege confers at least several, high-level benefits, including:
1) A condensed attack surface: Limiting privileges for people, processes, and applications/machines diminishes the pathways and ingresses for exploit.
2) Reduced malware infection and propagation: Least privilege helps dramatically reduce malware infection and propagation, as the malware (such as SQL injections or ransomware) should be denied the ability to elevate processes that allow it to install or execute.
3) Improved operational performance: When it comes to applications and systems, restricting privileges to the minimal range of processes to perform an authorized activity reduces the chance of incompatibility issues cropping up between other applications or systems, and helps reduce the risk of downtime.
4) Easier to achieve, and prove, compliance: By constraining the possible activities, least privilege enforcement helps create a less complex, and thus, a more audit-friendly, environment. Moreover, many compliance regulations (including HIPAA, PCI DSS, FDDC, Government Connect, FISMA, and SOX) require that organizations apply least-privilege access policies to ensure proper data stewardship and systems security. For instance:
- The US federal government’s FDCC mandate states that federal employees must log in to PCs with standard user privileges.
- The HIPAA Privacy Rule provides guidelines for the establishment of least privilege, such as restricting access to data (i.e. a subset of a patient record as opposed to the entire record) base on the “minimum necessary use” to accomplish a specific purpose.
- PCI DSS states that organizations that process or store credit card data must restrict access to cardholder data by business need to know, and specifically invokes the use of least privilege user accounts [ 7.1.1 Restriction of access rights to privileged user IDs to least privileges necessary to perform job responsibilities; 7.2.2 Assignment of privileges to individuals based on job classification and function].
Least Privilege Strategies & Best Practices
So, what does a wholly-adopted least privilege computing environment look like? How does your organization get there?
Here are some best practices and strategies to help you bake in least privilege across your organization:
1) Perform a privilege audit to discover, and bring under policy management, all privileged accounts and credentials for employees, contractors, and vendors. This should include all user and local accounts, SSH keys, Windows and Linux groups, and default and hard-coded passwords for human and machine identities.
2) Remove admin rights on endpoints – As opposed to provisioning default access, default all users to standard privileges, while enabling elevated privileges for applications and to perform specific tasks. If access is not initially provided and is required, the user can submit a help desk request for approval.
3) Remove all root and admin access rights to servers and reduce every user to a standard user. This dramatically reduces the attack surface and helps safeguard your most sensitive assets.
4) Segment systems and networks to broadly separate users and processes based on different levels of trust, needs, and privilege sets.
5) Enforce separation of privileges, this includes separating administrative account functions from standard account requirements, separating auditing/logging capabilities within the administrative accounts, and separating system functions (read, edit, write, execute, etc.).
6) Implement just-in-time privileges (JIT): Ideally, privileged access should be time-bound and/or bound by completion of a specific task or process. Eliminate always-on / standing privileges as much as is practical, with the zero standing privileges the ideal state. This means privileges should only be elevated on an as-needed basis for specific applications and tasks only for the moment of time they are needed, without requiring administrative credentials or exposing passwords. This is sometimes called “privilege bracketing”.
7) Implement one-time-use credentials: For instance, use password "safes," where a one-time-password (OTP) for privileged accounts is "checked out" until an activity is completed, immediately after which time it is checked back in. The used password is then retired.
8) Replace hardcoded credentials with APIs allowing credentials to be retrieved from password safes. Alternatively, such as with DevOps and CI/CD toolsets, replace hardcoded credentials with dynamic secrets.
9) Ensure individual actions are traceable: This can be accomplished through user IDs as well as via auditing and other tools, to provide oversight and accountability.
10) Extend least privilege policies beyond the perimeter. Least privilege security controls must also be applied to vendors, contractors, and all remote access sessions.
11) Enforce vulnerability-based least-privilege access: Incorporate real-time vulnerability and threat data about an asset or user to make dynamic risk-based access decisions. For instance, restrict privileges of an account suspected of compromise or for an application with a known vulnerability.
12) Analyze and report on all privileged accounts and access: This should encompass shared admin accounts, application accounts (A2A), local admin accounts, service accounts, database accounts, cloud and social media accounts, devices (including IoT), SSH keys, and more. Auditing activities can also include capturing keystrokes and screens.
Least Privilege Access & Zero Trust
Least privilege is one of the foundation principles of zero trust security models. Zero trust architectures were developed to address the increasingly distributed, perimeterless IT computing environment. At the core, zero trust frameworks treat users, applications, endpoints, and other assets as untrusted. Zero trust layers on contextual, in-the-moment data to enable decisions on granting, restricting, and terminating access.
The zero trust model requires many different technologies and solutions. However, applying continuous authentication—such as after an interval (day or hours) of time has passed or for different levels of access, microsegmentation, and least privilege will put you in a strong position to achieve zero trust and reduce enterprise risk.
Least Privilege Solutions
So, now that you have some best practices and strategies, what are the best tools or technologies to implement least privilege?
Network segmentation, such as the creation of different zones through firewall configuration and rules, is one key way to enforce least privilege in broad strokes. By controlling access and movement between zones, which may have a different mix of applications and services, firewalls can restrict users broadly based on privileges. For instance, firewalls are used to create a DMZ (demilitarized zone) between a corporate network and the public network. Firewalls can also easily block unauthorized privilege elevation activity (such as from service requests) based on rules applicable to the zone.
Privilege Access Management (PAM), also called Privileged Identity Management (PIM), Privileged Account Management, or just Privilege Management, involves the creation and deployment of solutions and strategies to manage privileged accounts across an environment. Holistic PAM solutions discover and bring under management all privileged accounts and credentials, both human and machine. These solutions remove admin rights from users, and instead, elevate privileges for authorized applications or tasks as-needed, ideally, in alignment with just-in-time access models. Application control capabilities are an important component of many PAM solutions, helping ensure only authorized applications execute approved functions or communications. While identity and access management (IAM) controls provide authentication of identities, PAM allows organizations to control authorization over ability to perform a granular activity. IAM and PAM solutions working together can help provide fine-grained control, visibility, and auditability over all credentials and privileges. The most mature PAM solutions can also extend least privilege management best practices beyond the perimeter to vendors and remote workers, ensuring more granular control than is possible with VPNs or other remote access tools. Privileged access management technologies, especially those that apply just-time-access, are also a principle enabler of zero trust environments.
Systems hardening, entailing the removal of superfluous programs, accounts, and services (such as with a server that connects to the internet), and the closing of unneeded firewall ports, is another common mechanism for applying least privilege. Systems hardening not only markedly improves security posture by reducing the attack surface, but it also reduces complexity and simplifies the environment. PAM solutions are also one of the many tools that enable organizations to harden devices, software, applications, and other assets.
How to Implement Least Privilege
Effective implementation of least privilege will involve policies, procedures, technologies—and proper configuration of those technologies. Formalizing a policy should also help you get a better handle on where your sensitive data resides, and who can access it.
Most likely, various aspects of least privilege will need to be phased in over time, rather than implemented all at once. While many organizations tackle privilege management challenges in a similar order, the best path forward for any organization will always be tailored to its unique needs and resources.
The more mature a least-privilege policy implementation, the more effective an organization will be in condensing the attack surface, minimizing threat windows, mitigating the impact of attacks (by hackers, malware, or insiders), enhancing operational performance, and in reducing the risk from and impact of user errors.
Least Privilege Management Resources
- Microsoft Vulnerabilities Report (research report)
- Privilege Management Overview (video)
- Endpoint Privilege Management (video)
- Removing Users From The Local Administrators Group (blog)
- The Gartner 2020 Magic Quadrant for Privileged Access Management (analyst research)
- The Forrester Wave™: Privileged Identity Management, Q4 2020 (analyst research)
- Privileged Access Management (PAM) Buyer’s Guide & Checklist
- Delegating Privileges to Domain Controllers and Active Directory without the Security Risk (blog)
- Best Practices for Managing Domain Admin Accounts (blog)
- The Guide to Just-In-Time Privileged Access Management (white paper)
Matt Miller, Director, Content Marketing
Matt Miller is Director, Content Marketing at BeyondTrust. Prior to BeyondTrust, he developed and executed marketing strategies on cyber security and cloud technologies in roles at Accelerite (a business unit of Persistent Systems), WatchGuard Technologies, and Microsoft. Earlier in his career Matt held various roles in IR, marketing, and corporate communications in the biotech / biopharmaceutical industry. His experience and interests traverse cyber security, cloud / virtualization, IoT, economics, information governance, and risk management. He is also an avid homebrewer (working toward his Black Belt in beer) and writer.